زبان انگلیسی/مترجمی زبان انگلیسی

بايد ببينيد

معرفی لینک مناسب جهت نمایشنامه/death-of-a-salesman
نویسنده : محمدرضا جعفری - ساعت ۱:٢٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/۱٠/٢۱
 

http://www.gradesaver.com/death-of-a-salesman/


 
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دشمن مردم اثر هنریک ایپسن
نویسنده : محمدرضا جعفری - ساعت ۱:٥٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٩/۳
 

An Enemy of the People

 Henrik Ibsen

Characters

 

Doctor Thomas Stockmann  -  A practicing medical doctor, the medical officer of the town baths, and the brother of the mayor, who got him the job at the baths. Stockmann is idealistic and excitable. For much of his life he was destitute and lived in the countryside; now he is happy to be fairly prosperous and living in a bustling town.

 

Mrs. Katherine Stockmann  -  Dr. Stockmann's wife. She is loyal and practical and often encourages her husband to think of his family when he is being rash. Morten Kiil is her adoptive father, or grandfather, depending on translation.

 

Petra Stockmann -  The daughter of Thomas and Katherine, Petra is as idealistic as her father. She is a hard-working teacher, and she is frustrated that the law requires her to teach things she doesn't believe in.

 

Peter Stockmann  -  Peter is Dr. Stockmann's brother. He is also chairman of the baths committee. He is a cautious but sometimes ruthless politician.

 

Hovstad -  Hovstad is editor of The People's Herald, the town's leftist newspaper. Although slightly corrupt, he is at heart a political radical.

 

Aslaksen -  Aslaksen is the newspaper's printer. Because he lets the paper print on credit, he has a degree of editorial control. He is also the chairman of the homeowners association, which represents the town's small business class, the majority of voters. He also has great influence with the Temperance Society, and he is a lover of moderation.

 

Billing -  An assistant at the newspaper, he is a radical, like Hovstad, but he is also ambitious and plans to run for office. He is in some way courting Petra.

 

Captain Horster -  A ship captain who has little interest in local politics, Horster provides the hall for Doctor Stockmann's speech, but he is fired from his ship as a result.

 

Morten Kiil -  A rich old man, Kiil owns several of the tanneries that Dr. Stockmann implicates in his water pollution report. He is the adoptive father or grandfather (depending on the translation) of Mrs. Stockmann, and his will assigns a good deal of wealth to her and her children.

 

 

 

Act V

Summary

 

The setting is Dr. Stockmann's study. The windowpanes are broken. The doctor is picking up stones that have been thrown through the windows. His landlord sends a letter giving the Stockmanns notice that they have to move out. The doctor doesn't care because he is taking his family to the New World on Horster's next boat. Mrs. Stockmann asks him if they should move to another town in Norway, but the doctor replies that the population will be the same wherever he goes and he doesn't want his sons to grow up among the "lapdogs" of Norway. He thinks that in the New World things might be different.

Petra enters. Even though her supervisor at the school is "freethinking," she has been fired because of anonymous threats her supervisor received. Captain Horster arrives. He has been given notice by Vik, the owner of the ship he sails. He is not worried; he can easily get a job with an out of town ship owner, and he does not regret helping the Stockmanns. The mayor arrives, and he and the doctor go to talk in private. The mayor has come to give the doctor notice regarding his position as medical officer of the baths and to ask the doctor to leave town for a while. If, after six months or so, the doctor will publicly retract his statements, he might be hired again. The doctor furiously refuses. Then, the mayor suggests that he has a reason for feeling so secure in his defiance--Morten Kiil's will. The doctor does not understand, and the mayor explains that Kiil has provided for Mrs. Stockmann and the children in his will. The doctor is jubilant, and when the mayor suggests that Kiil might redraw his will in light of the doctor's recent actions, the doctor exclaims that, on the contrary, Kiil is happy to see the doctor causing trouble for the authorities. The mayor then accuses the doctor of merely speaking out in order to curry favor with Kiil and secure his family a part of the inheritance. The mayor then leaves, announcing that now that he has a weapon to use against the doctor, he can never get his job back. The doctor orders his wife to scrub wherever the mayor has been.

 

Morten Kiil arrives. He brings with him a large number of shares in the baths, which he has just bought. He is upset that his name might be tarnished by rumors started by the doctor that his tanneries are polluting the baths. He wants the doctor to retract his statements; to force him to do so, he has invested Mrs. Stockmann's inheritance in bath stocks. He was able to buy them very cheap that morning, and if the doctor retracts his statements about the baths, their value will skyrocket and Morten Kiil will own most of the baths--and start to make the repairs the doctor proposed. Kiil tells the doctor to come to a decision by that afternoon.

 

As Kiil leaves, Hovstad and Aslaksen enter. They also have a deal for Stockmann. They know that Kiil has been buying up stocks, and they propose to put the People's Herald at the doctor's disposal once he has control of the baths and let him pretend to fix the baths. They remind him that the press has a great deal of power in a free society. All they want is compensation to keep the paper in business. The doctor sarcastically responds that it would be a shame for a friend of the people like the People's Herald to go out of business, but since he is an enemy of the people, he could care less. He lunges for his cane and tries to drive the newspapermen out the window into the gutter. They manage to escape.

 

Mrs. Stockmann, Petra, and Captain Horster want to know what is going on, but before the doctor tells them, he writes "No!" three times on a card and sends it to Morten Kiil. He announces to his family that they are not going to sail for the New World but instead are going to stay and fight. Captain Horster invites them to stay in his house. He will continue his medical practice with the poorest patients, as everyone else will refuse him. He embraces his wife and asks her to look at how beautifully the sun is shining. He resolves to hunt down the wolves that control the city, and his only regret is that he doesn't know any men who can continue the mission after he dies. The doctor's sons arrive, having been sent home because they got into a fight. The doctor decides that he will set up a school for poor children in the great hall where he was branded an enemy of the people. Mrs. Stockmann, however, is still worried that the "wolves" might hunt him down. He replies that he is stronger than the wolves, because he stands alone.

 

Commentary

 

By the end of An Enemy of the People, Dr. Stockmann's position has changed several times. Sometimes he seems to be proud that he is "an enemy of the people," but early in Act V he says that the words wound him and are lodged in his heart. What is consistent is a sense of honor and a short temper. His partial embrace of the title enemy of the people is full of sarcasm, as seen when he turns on Hovstad and Aslaksen with his cane. He spoke out against the tyranny of the majority, but he still sees that men like Hovstad have a lot of control, and he is sincerely happy to be Hovstad's enemy. Thus, he eagerly calls himself an enemy of the people to Hovstad's face, implying that corrupt Hovstad is the real enemy.

 Analysis

 

Dr. Stockmann makes a discovery that he thinks will help the town. He presses for changes to be made to the baths, but the town turns on him. Not only have his scientific experiments been a waste of time, and not only will the townspeople suffer, but his freedom of speech and self-respect are being attacked. He then decides that the only reason that the leaders have turned on him is that they are afraid of the people. He, thus, lashes out at the people. He is motivated both by his anger and by true realizations about the corruption of the town.

 

It can be concluded that An Enemy of the People has two key messages. First, it is a criticism of democracy. Second, it is the story of how one man's bravery and self-respect can survive overwhelming odds.

 

Ibsen's critique of democracy is twofold. First, he shows the tyranny of the majority. The majority is a tyrant insofar as the leaders of society are afraid to do what is right because they are at the people's mercy. Even though Hovstad wanted to print the doctor's report on the baths, he was afraid to do so because his subscribers would be upset. The mayor cannot propose any changes to the baths because the public might find out that the mayor had made a mistake in the original plans and, thus, oust him. The majority is afraid of risk and, according to the doctor, it is not intelligent enough to do what is right.

 

While Ibsen illustrates the tyranny of the majority, he also shows how leaders can manipulate the majority. When Aslaksen and the mayor take control of the town meeting, they are manipulating the majority, using the majority to their ends. It could be that Hovstad merely cited his subscribers' possible wrath as an excuse because he himself did not want to print the article. More likely, both he and his subscribers would have been against the doctor. Those who are in power, like Hovstad and the mayor, automatically guess what the majority will want, and they always try to please the majority. While Aslaksen and the mayor manipulated the audience at the town meeting, they influenced them in the only way possible. In other words, it would have been almost impossible for the mayor to convince the crowd that they should support the doctor's comments about the stupidity of the masses. Ibsen's idea is that the majority does not rule directly; instead, the idea and threat of the majority keeps leaders from acting honestly.

 

The personal story of Dr. Stockmann is secondary. The key thing to remember is that he is extremely idealistic and maybe even a little naive and foolish. His wife, after all, feels compelled to remind him of practicalities.

 

As righteous as Dr. Stockmann may be, we should note that he certainly makes things hard for himself. This is best captured in his decision to remain in town. He decides to stay because he is incredibly angry, and he wants to keep fighting. In Act II, we see the mayor accuse Dr. Stockmann of being forever resentful of authority, implying that the doctor has a history of attacking authority. Thus, Dr. Stockmann's position at the end of the play is as much a result of his morals as of his naturally defiant personality.

 

The end of the play provides an interesting contrast between Mrs. Stockmann and Petra. Mrs. Stockmann accepts her husband's eccentric behavior. Petra, on the other hand, eagerly supports him. When he remarks that he doesn't know who will carry on after he dies, Petra says that problem will be solved in time. Clearly, Petra can follow him--only she isn't a man. Ibsen is highly conscious of gender issues. In a play otherwise about the extent to which a free democracy is not free, Ibsen finds room to speak up for women. He also shows that the doctor's ideas, too, can be


 
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